Distant rumors show us that supermassive black holes are so big
Second, in prepress printing will soon be published in the journal Astrophysical Journal, a discovery of an astrophysical jet from a supermassive black hole 12.7 billion light-years away and a billion times more massive than the sun. The team was first discovered in 2018. -radio Observatory, which looks at the emissions of radiographs of very hot objects in the universe to make these observations. It is the farthest astrophysical sharpener ever seen on X-rays.
Each set of findings breaks some records of esoteric astronomy, but that’s not a big deal. Both help explain why supermassive black holes grow so fast, even if they release high-energy matter constantly. What the group found is the first evidence of the type that the jets were animated fast feeding from a black hole.
In the first study, after Magallanes confirmed the existence of the black hole, the team used other tools, such as the Very Large Chilean Telescope, to detect other properties about the black hole and its jet, such as mass.
Additional data show how jets drive nutrition. The intense gravitational force of the black hole is trying to attract massive amounts of gas and dust to its event horizon (point of no return). This subject has an angular momentum, which means that it does not fall directly, as it orbits around the horizon of events. Meanwhile, the radiation pressure in the field (until the friction and stress generated on the disk of the orbiting matter shines) continues to move the gas away from the event horizon.
What happens is a bit complex, but the rays of essentially sharp particles remove the angular momentum as the gas moves outward. And unlike the pressure of radiation that shines and pushes outward in all directions, it is a narrow jet and therefore barely able to interact and interact with dense layers of gas that are farther away. With the gas being a way to lose angular momentum with little delay, a large portion of the gas around the event horizon enters it.
“In this way, the jet ensures that the black hole does not actively work with itself, it is able to continue to feed,” says NASA astronomer Thomas Connor and author of the two papers. While scientists may have a role to play in boosting the process of feeding jets, “so far we haven’t seen any credible evidence of that,” he says.
X-ray analysis reinforces this idea. These observations revealed that the jet was 150,000 light-years away from its source, making it the first observation of jet rays longer than thousands of light-years. “This large-scale X-ray detection means we’ve had incredibly long jets,” Connor says. They are not transient blips, but were maintained for hundreds of thousands of years, long enough to help feed a supermassive black hole and grow very quickly. “We know now that it’s a long-term process, and so the jets are able to help create those supermassive black holes,” he says. “This is a piece that connects the 15-year-old theory to where we are now.”
Both studies help lay the foundations for follow-up discoveries that can help supermassive black holes evolve and form the first universe. Now we have a better idea of how to look for old black holes, as well as to understand that more x-ray observations can be more critical to know how the dynamics of feeding jets work.
For Connor, these additional observations will be key. And he’s pretty excited after this week’s two-stroke. The finding “fortunately indicates that there are many more of these objects out there,” he says, “and I hope we can get the distance record again soon.”